We can also look at inclusive negotiations where both sides lose to win. For example, unions may be willing to forego annual bonuses to have a higher annual salary. Or alternatively, the union would agree to a wage freeze to accept better working conditions. Thus, workers would lose due to a fall in real wages, while the employer would have to invest under better conditions. The 1956 resolution on industrial policy declared that « in a socialist democracy, labour is a partner in the common task of development », following the Lok Sabha resolution of 1954, which put India on the path to a « socialist social model ». The idea of collective bargaining arose from labor disputes and the growth of the labor movement and was first monetary in the United States by Samuel Crompers. In India, the first collective agreement of 1920 was implemented at the initiative of Mahatma Gandhi to settle relations between a group of employers and their textile workers in Ahmadabad. Governments should consult with the relevant employers` and workers` organizations when setting minimum benefits and the minimum number of workers necessary for their performance, in order to ensure that the minimum level of service does not render the strike ineffective in practice because of its limited effect.  Differences of opinion regarding the setting of these minimums should be settled by an independent body and not by the Ministry of Labour or the ministry or (public) enterprise concerned.  A sample study conducted by the Employers` Federation of India for the period 1956-1960 showed that collective agreements between 32 and 49% of disputes were concluded. Most collective agreements have been concluded at company level. In this context, the National Labour Commission has highlighted the progress of collective agreements to a large extent. In the Indian situation, there are also rivalries between the unions.
Even if unions unite, as they sometimes do to negotiate with the employer, they make contradictory demands that effectively confuse employers and workers. . . .