In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not adopt further Kyoto targets.  On December 12, 2011, the Canadian government announced, with effect from December 15, 2012, its withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, which is possible at any time three years after its ratification.  Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% compared to 1990 by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% higher than in 1990. The Harper government has prioritized the development of the oil sands in Alberta and has depriororized the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent spoke of Canada`s responsibility for « huge financial penalties » under the treaty if it did not withdraw.   He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could offer another way forward.  The Harper government has stated that it will find a « made in Canada » solution. Canada`s decision received a generally negative response from representatives of other raking countries.  This refers to how certain gases in the Earth`s atmosphere retain energy from solar rays by capturing infrared energy (as in the Climate 101 video). The greenhouse effect has existed for millions of years and is necessary for the earth to be warm enough to preserve life.
If we increase the greenhouse effect by increasing the proportion of greenhouse gases, we are experiencing global warming. Greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly in several major developing countries and high-growth economies (China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Iran) (PBL, 2009).  For example, emissions in China increased sharply between 1990 and 2005, often by more than 10% per year. Per capita emissions in non-Annex I countries remain largely lower than in industrialized countries. Countries that are not included in Annex I do not have quantitative emission reduction obligations, but they are required to take mitigation measures. China, for example, has a national policy agenda to reduce emissions growth, which included shutting down old, less efficient coal-fired power plants. The United States, the world`s second-largest emitter, is the only country to withdraw from the deal, a step by President Donald J. Trump, which went into effect in November 2020. Some other countries have not formally approved the deal: Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Libya, South Sudan, Turkey and Yemen. .